Effect of Sensor Location of Smart Composite Plate System on Feedback Control Performance

Ermira Junita Abdullah, P. S. Gaikwad, D. L. Abdul Majid, A. S. Mohd Rafie


The present study is proposing a deflection control of a fiberglass composite plate system using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. The aim of this study is to determine the optimal placement of sensor for the feedback smart composite plate system. Strain measurement on the composite plate was chosen as the input variable for the feedback system. The change in strain on the composite plate was different at all locations on the plate during deflection. Thus, six strain gauges were placed at three positions i.e. tip, mid and root of the plate, at angle 0° and 45° in order to measure the change in strain at these locations and determine which is the best location to produce accurate control of the plate. The performance of the plate using these input variables were compared and analyzed by conducting experiments which required the plate to be deflected using the control system. In order to evaluate the performance of the controller under varying conditions, disturbances were also added to the experiments. The disturbances introduced were similar to those faced by aircraft during flight that is wind flow at varying velocities conducted in the wind tunnel. From the experimental results, it was found that the tip of the plate had the highest change in strain value and the control using input from the strain gauge located there produced the best performance as compared to input from strain gauges located at mid and root of the plate. However, in the presence of airflow, it was found that the best control performance was using feedback from the strain gauge located in the middle of the plate.


Smart structure system; shape memory alloy; strain feedback control; composite

Full Text:


Included Database


Barbarino S., Bilgen O., Ajaj R. M., Friswell M. I. and Inman D. J., “A Review of Morphing Aircraft,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 22 (9), pp. 823-877, 2011.

Sofla A.Y.N., Meguid S. A., Tan K. T. and Yeo W. K., “Shape Morphing of Aircraft Wing: Status and Challenges,” Materials and Design, Vol. 31(3), pp 1284-1292, 2010.

Fontanazza F., Talling R., Jackson M., Dashwood R., Dyeand D. and Iannucci L. “Morphing Wing Technologies Research,” Seas DTC First Conference, 2006.

Choi, S. and Lee, J. J. "The Shape Control of a Composite Beam with Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Wire Actuators," Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 7 (6), pp. 29-38, 1998.

Oh, J. T., Park, H. C. and Hwang, W. "Active Shape Control of a Double-plate Structures using Piezoceramics and SMA Wires," Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 10 (5) pp. 1100-1106, 2001.

Yang, S. M., Roh J. H., Han J. H. and Lee I. "Experimental Studies on Active Shape Control of Composite Structures using SMA Actuators," Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 17 (767) DOI: 10.1177 / 1045389X06055830, 2006.

D J Hartl and D C Lagoudas, “Aerospace applications of shape memory alloys,” Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part G: J. Aerospace Engineering, pp. 535-552, 2007.

S. Barbarino, E I Saavedra Flores,5, R. M. Ajaj, I. Dayyani and M I Friswell, A review on shape memory alloys with applications to morphing aircraft,” Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 23, Number 6, 063001 (19pp) 2014.

Lima W. M., de Araujo C. J., Valenzuela W. A. V. and da Rocha Neto J. S., "Control of Strain in a Flexible Beam Using Ni-Ti-Cu Shape Memory Alloy Wire Actuators," Journal of the Brazillian Society of Mechanical Science & Engineering, Vol. 34, pp.413-422, 2012.

Bil C., Massey, K. and Abdullah E. J., “Wing Morphing Control with Shape Memory Alloy Actuators,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 24 (7), pp. 879-898, 2013.

D. L. Majid, E. J. Abdullah, N. F. Harun, G. Y. LiM, B. T. H. T. Baharudin, “Effect of fiber orientation on the structural response of a smart composite structure.” Procedia Engineering Vol.50, pp.445-452, 2012.

E. J. Abdullah, D. L. Majid, F. I. Romli, Priyanka S. Gaikwad, L. G. Yuan and N. F. Harun. Active Control of Strain in a Composite Plate using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators. International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in Design, Vol. 11(1), pp.25-39, 2015.

Karl Johan Astrom and Tore Hagglund. (2005) Advanced PID Control. ISA-The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709.

Ang K. H., Chong G. and Li Y. PID Control System Analysis, Design and Technology. IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 13(4):559- 576, 2005.

Zhang D., Li H. and Collins E. G. “Digital Anti-windup PI Controllers for Variable-Speed Motor Drives using FPGA and Stochastic Theory,” IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 21(5):1496 – 1501, 2006.

Bolton W. Mechatronics. Prentice Hall, 3rd Edition, Essex, England, 2003.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.18686/esta.v6i1.64


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Ermira Junita Abdullah, P. S. Gaikwad, D. L. Abdul Majid, A. S. Mohd Rafie

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.